ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
Now, some lessons in leadership from a man whose name is synonymous with the ruthless exercise of power: Niccolo Machiavelli.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: My view is that it is desirable to be both loved and feared, but it is difficult to achieve both. And if one of them has to be lacking, it is much safer to be feared than loved.
SIEGEL: That, of course, wasn't actually Machiavelli. That advice was from his handbook for statesmen titled "The Prince." It's one of the most influential political essays in Western literature, and NPR's Sylvia Poggioli takes us to an exhibit in Rome celebrating its 500th anniversary.
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SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: A Renaissance madrigal plays in the background as visitors can admire some of the earliest editions of "The Prince." There are also more modern representations of Machiavelli. One display case contains contemporary paraphernalia - buttons, refrigerator magnets, T-shirts, wristwatches and teddy bears - all emblazoned with the image of Niccolo Machiavelli, just the latest sign of the enduring impact of a man some scholars describe as - for good or ill - the herald of the modern political era.
The Catholic Church banned "The Prince" soon after its publication. And the exhibit includes an item loaned by the Vatican. It's a wooden chest from the Holy Office, once known as the Inquisition, where the index of banned books was kept.
But despite the ban, copies and translations of "The Prince" spread quickly throughout the known world of the time. It's the most translated book from the Italian language, beating even Dante's "Divine Comedy," says the exhibit's curator. Alessandro Campi points to several display cases dedicated to what came to be known negatively as Machiavellism.
ALESSANDRO CAMPI: (Through translator) It all starts with the Elizabethans. There are several passages in Shakespeare and Marlowe that mention the Old Nick, a name for the Devil later applied also to Niccolo, the sinister Machiavelli.
POGGIOLI: Niccolo Machiavelli, politician, historian and philosopher in Renaissance Florence wrote "The Prince" while he was virtually under house arrest. He had served in the Florentine republic in key positions as a diplomat and the official in charge of the city's military defense until the Medici princes were restored to power in 1512. Later accused of conspiracy, he was arrested and tortured in prison. Released to his country home, politics remained Machiavelli's passion and he wrote what many scholars say is the first modern treatise on political science.
VALDO SPINI: The sentence that the end justifies the means, Machiavelli is arrived very near, but he never wrote.
POGGIOLI: Scholar and former MP Valdo Spini says that quintessentially cynical concept was attributed to Machiavelli falsely by a Jesuit priest, Antonio Possevino, who at the end of the 16th century wrote a satire of Machiavelli's work that tainted the writer's intent.
SPINI: I don't think he is a kind of apologist of dictatorship, but he understood the deep force who acts in the society, and this is very - his modernity.
POGGIOLI: Few works of world literature have had so many diverging interpretations. Some of them are projected on a wall of the exhibit. The philosopher Spinoza was convinced "The Prince" was a warning to men of what tyrants were capable of.
Francis Bacon thought Machiavelli a realist unfettered by utopian fantasies. Karl Marx considered Machiavelli's work a genuine masterpiece. Bertrand Russell called "The Prince" a handbook for gangsters. Former Prime Minister Giuliano Amato, who wrote an essay for the exhibit catalog, says the Florentine writer has been wrongly described as the bard of cynicism.
GIULIANO AMATO: He is misrepresented and misunderstood because he said politics has to find its own ethics and its own values, disentangling politics from religion and from other sets of values.
POGGIOLI: One of the judgments projected on the exhibition wall is by the great 20th-century scholar Isaiah Berlin. Machiavelli, he said, helped cause men to become aware of the necessity of making agonizing choices between incompatible alternatives in public and private life. Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Rome. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.