Why A Proper Lady Found Herself Behind Bars
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This year marks the 50th anniversary of several civil rights milestones, including Freedom Summer and the murders of three civil rights workers in Mississippi. It's also the 50th anniversary of the movement to desegregate St. Augustine, Fla. NPR's Karen Grigsby Bates has this story about a critical moment and an unexpected champion in what came to be known as the St. Augustine Movement. A warning: This piece contains images and language some may find upsetting.
KAREN GRIGSBY BATES, BYLINE: Warm weather, white sand beaches, gentle breezes - in 1964, St. Augustine was a quiet, palm-fringed resort town with pastel Spanish colonial buildings; and a historic part of downtown that contained a building that was often referred to as the old slave market because for several decades, that had been its purpose. In an oral history from the St. Augustine Civil Rights Library, Bernice Lacey Harper described the lack of public amenities for black St. Augustinians.
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BERNICE LACEY HARPER: The horses had a trough, and they could get a cold drink of water. But blacks could not drink from the water fountains.
BATES: For years, there had been a growing civil rights movement that had been met with increasingly violent response. Dr. Robert Hayling, a prominent black dentist with an integrated practice, had been a leader in the struggle. In September 1963, he and two colleagues were run off the road and kidnapped by the Ku Klux Klan. In his oral history, Dr. Hayling described what happened next.
(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED ORAL HISTORY)
DR. ROBERT HAYLING: Literally, after being beaten severely, we were stacked like cordwood on top of each other. And even in the group, one of the leaders had asked the people assembled if they had ever had the pleasure of smelling a nigger burn.
BATES: Fortunately, they avoided that grisly fate when a sympathetic white man slipped away and made a hasty call to authorities in nearby Jacksonville, who intervened. But it was clear black rejection of segregation was growing. To increase the pressure, Martin Luther King and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference put out a call for white students in the North to skip the beach on their spring break and instead, come to Florida to protest segregation. Historian David Colburn, professor emeritus at the University of Florida, said the SCLC knew St. Augustine was preparing to celebrate its 400th birthday with a year's worth of festivities.
DAVID COLBURN: And it was clear that they were trying to mobilize a - their civil rights army to come to St. Augustine, to lead demonstrations against the segregation policies of the community.
BATES: One of the volunteers turned out to be Mary Parkman Peabody, the wife of a former Episcopal bishop and the mother of the then-governor of Massachusetts, Endicott Peabody. By birth and by marriage, Mrs. Peabody was connected to two of Boston's most ancient and prominent families. Her son Samuel Peabody said she'd been active in what she called justice issues for years, sometimes in the face of stiff disapproval from her elite social circles.
SAMUEL PEABODY: She never had a doubt about her opinions, right, and she stood up. She was quite articulate about them at all times.
BATES: And, says David Colburn, civil rights was already very much on Mrs. Peabody's radar.
COLBURN: She had, through her family - particularly through her husband's association with Martin Luther King - come to supporting the civil rights movement, and anxious to see it successful.
BATES: So 72-year-old Mary Peabody and a few other similarly powerful women flew down to St. Augustine, intending to demonstrate but as a compromise to their worried families, not intending to be jailed. Eventually, though, they decided they had to join the protesters behind bars. We need some old people in this thing, she told reporters as she was led away. We're just what they say we are: do-gooders.
Malcolm Peabody bailed his mother out two days later, and says the authorities treated her well.
MALCOLM PEABODY: They were all polite to her and particularly polite because she was a lady of 72 years old, and dressed properly.
BATES: Just as the SCLC had hoped, the story made national news. Photos accompanying it show an elderly lady with snowy hair and pearls, placidly peering between the bars of her cell. Samuel Peabody had been abroad and returned to find his mother was famous - or infamous, depending on your own point of view.
SAMUEL PEABODY: What surprised me was that I saw my mother on the front page of every newspaper in the country.
BATES: Historian David Colburn says it was a turning point.
COLBURN: St. Augustine was one of those critical three or four campaigns that unfolded in the early 1960s that brought about substantive racial change in America.
BATES: Black St. Augustine residents had been working to break segregation for years before Mrs. Peabody's arrival, but her presence in March 1964 made their struggles visible. Son Malcolm Peabody says his mother was pleased she'd contributed to their efforts.
MALCOLM PEABODY: She was tickled that she could be helpful - as indeed, she was.
BATES: And the momentum from her St. Augustine visit would become a springboard for even larger demonstrations a few months later.
Karen Grigsby Bates, NPR News. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.