A Peek Inside A Once Top Secret Spot In Atomic Age History

A Peek Inside A Once Top Secret Spot In Atomic Age History

11:40am Jul 19, 2013
The B Reactor is the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor located at the Hanford site in Richland, Wash. The three-story-high block of graphite contains about 2,000 "process tubes" arranged in a grid. These tubes contained uranium, and when enough ura
The B Reactor is the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor located at the Hanford site in Richland, Wash. The three-story-high block of graphite contains about 2,000 "process tubes" arranged in a grid. These tubes contained uranium, and when enough ura
Martin Kaste / NPR
  • The B Reactor is the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor located at the Hanford site in Richland, Wash. The three-story-high block of graphite contains about 2,000 "process tubes" arranged in a grid. These tubes contained uranium, and when enough ura

    The B Reactor is the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor located at the Hanford site in Richland, Wash. The three-story-high block of graphite contains about 2,000 "process tubes" arranged in a grid. These tubes contained uranium, and when enough ura

    Martin Kaste / NPR

  • The facility has been carefully restored with vintage warning signs leading visitors to the reactor. Today, there is minimal danger of radioactivity.

    The facility has been carefully restored with vintage warning signs leading visitors to the reactor. Today, there is minimal danger of radioactivity.

    Martin Kaste / NPR

  • Tour guide Paul Vinther (left) began working at the B Reactor in 1950 and spent 38 years at this and other plutonium-production facilities that sprang up nearby during the Cold War. He also managed the B Reactor when it was shut down in 1968.

    Tour guide Paul Vinther (left) began working at the B Reactor in 1950 and spent 38 years at this and other plutonium-production facilities that sprang up nearby during the Cold War. He also managed the B Reactor when it was shut down in 1968.

    Martin Kaste / NPR

  • Vinther, a physicist, spent a lot of time here in the reactor's control room. The inventor of nuclear reactors, Enrico Fermi, also had an office here.

    Vinther, a physicist, spent a lot of time here in the reactor's control room. The inventor of nuclear reactors, Enrico Fermi, also had an office here.

    Martin Kaste / NPR

  • During Vinther's early years, his main job was as a human calculator. Whenever the reactor shut down, they'd call him in to calculate how long certain elements took to dissipate so they could restart it.

    During Vinther's early years, his main job was as a human calculator. Whenever the reactor shut down, they'd call him in to calculate how long certain elements took to dissipate so they could restart it.

    Martin Kaste / NPR

  • Today, from the outside, the B Reactor building is not much to look at, but during World War II and the Cold War, this was one of the most secret, closely guarded places in America. Now, you can sign up for free tours with the Department of Energy.

    Today, from the outside, the B Reactor building is not much to look at, but during World War II and the Cold War, this was one of the most secret, closely guarded places in America. Now, you can sign up for free tours with the Department of Energy.

    Martin Kaste / NPR

  • Take a tour of the Hanford site, a nuclear production complex in Richland, Wash., and you'll see the hundreds of mechanical water pressure gauges wired to the process tubes inside the core. Tour guide Paul Vinther warns that bumping these gauges could thr

    Take a tour of the Hanford site, a nuclear production complex in Richland, Wash., and you'll see the hundreds of mechanical water pressure gauges wired to the process tubes inside the core. Tour guide Paul Vinther warns that bumping these gauges could thr

    Martin Kaste / NPR

People tend to remember that the atomic bomb was developed at Los Alamos, N.M., and Oak Ridge, Tenn., but they often forget about a third nuclear production complex — the Hanford Site in Richland, Wash. It's where they built the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor.

The "B Reactor" is a windowless, cinder block hulk out in the middle of nowhere. You might mistake it for an abandoned cement plant. But inside, it's a lovingly preserved time capsule of the Atomic Age. If you're lucky, your guide will be one of the people who worked here when the place was still new.

Paul Vinther signed on at the plant in June 1950. He's a physicist, and his first job was helping to fine-tune the nuclear reaction that turned uranium into the highly radioactive plutonium that went into bombs, such as the one that fell on Nagasaki. He got here during Cold War, when B Reactor was churning out the raw material for America's growing nuclear arsenal.

Vinther leads a tour group into the control room.

The control room is very midcentury. It's government-issue green, with hundreds of analog gauges wired to the reactor core. No computers screens here. A vintage, hand-lettered sign warns against bumping into things.

"Well, the idea is that if you bump it, you might cause the electrical connection of this thing to vibrate. It might activate. You don't want to shut the reaction down because you bumped it!" Vinther says.

Did that ever happen? "It must have at one time because they wouldn't have said that," he says. "But people were very careful."

Vinther seems torn: He knows tourists want tales of hair-raising near-misses. But he insists his co-workers did their jobs safely. Still, there's no getting around the fact that the potential danger is what makes this place interesting. It's a point made by the hacksaw hanging on the wall in front of the reactor itself. The hacksaw has a very long handle.

"That shows when [people were] working on something hot that had to be cut, they could stand quite a distance away and still do the job," he says.

"Hot" — as in radioactive.

Sometimes tourists ask Vinther why he participated in the production of such frightening weapons. For him, it's simple: He says the A-bomb saved American lives. But when asked about all the radioactive waste produced here, he sighs. He calls it "a sad situation."

"Here we were, worried about Germany and Japan, and then we worried about the Cold War situation with Russia," Vinther says. "The idea was, 'Well, we'll just put the waste into tanks, and we'll handle it later, when we have time.' "

Later is now. Hanford no longer makes plutonium. The reactors that followed B have been shuttered and sealed up, and now the sprawling, 586-square-mile Hanford site has become synonymous with a giant remediation effort. Government contractors are billions of dollars into the process, with no end in sight. In fact, when it comes to cost and sheer technical complexity, the reactor is actually less impressive than the modern-day cleanup — and they offer tours of that, too.

Copyright 2015 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

Transcript

RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

We're spotlighting tour guides this summer in stories we're calling The Nickel Tour. Today, NPR's Martin Kaste introduces us to a man who enjoys showing tourists around his old workplace - and telling them not to worry about the radiation.

MARTIN KASTE, BYLINE: August, 1945, and the world finds out America has a new weapon.

(SOUNDBITE OF ATOMIC EXPLOSION)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: The natural power of the universe is harnessed in the new atomic bomb.

KASTE: People tend to remember that the bomb was developed at Los Alamos, New Mexico and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. But they often forget about a third site.

(SOUNDBITE OF NEWSREEL)

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Two billion dollars went into research and plants such as this one at Richland, Washington.

KASTE: The Hanford site, almost 600 square miles in southeastern Washington state. This is where they built the world's first full-scale nuclear reactor. The B Reactor: it's a windowless cinderblock hulk out in the middle of nowhere, and you might mistake it for an abandoned cement plant. But inside, it's a lovingly preserved time-capsule of the Atomic Age. If you're lucky, your guide will be one of the people who worked here when the place was still new.

PAUL VINTHER: I'm Paul Vinther, and I came to work at the plant in June of 1950.

KASTE: Vinther's a physicist, and his first job here was helping to fine-tune the nuclear reaction that turned uranium into the highly radioactive plutonium that went into the bombs - bombs like the one that fell on Nagasaki. He got here at the start of the Cold War, and the B Reactor was churning out the raw material for America's growing nuclear arsenal.

VINTHER: OK. We're going into the control room right now.

KASTE: The control room is very mid-century. It's government-issue green, and the walls are filled with hundreds of analog gauges. No computer screens here. A vintage, hand-lettered sign warns you against bumping into things.

VINTHER: Well, the idea is that if you bump it, you might cause the electrical connection of this thing to vibrate, it might activate. And you don't want to shut the reactor down because you bumped it.

KASTE: Did that ever happen?

VINTHER: It must have, at one time, because they wouldn't have said that.

(LAUGHTER)

VINTHER: But people were very careful of that very thing.

KASTE: Vinther seems torn. He knows tourists want some stories of hair-raising near misses. But he insists his co-workers did their jobs safely. Still, there's no getting around the fact that what makes this place interesting is the potential danger. It's a point made by the hacksaw hanging on the wall in front of the reactor. The hacksaw has a very long handle.

VINTHER: That shows, when the people was working on something hot that had to be cut, they could stand quite a bit of distance away and still do the job, that sort of thing.

KASTE: Hot meaning radioactive or hot meaning hot?

VINTHER: Well, radioactive.

KASTE: Sometimes the tourists will ask Vinther why he participated in the production of such frightening weapons. For him, the answer is simple. He says the A-bomb saved American lives. But when he's asked about all the radioactive waste that was produced here, he sighs. He calls it a sad situation.

VINTHER: Here we were, worried about Germany and Japan. And then we were worried about Cold War situation with Russia. The idea was, well, we'll just put the waste into tanks and handle it later when we have time.

KASTE: Later is now. Hanford no longer makes plutonium; the alphabet soup of reactors that followed B have been shuttered and sealed up. And now the Hanford site has become synonymous with a giant remediation effort. They're billions of dollars into the process, with no end in sight. In fact, when it comes to cost and sheer technical complexity, the reactor is actually less impressive than the modern-day cleanup. And they offer tours of that, too. Martin Kaste, NPR News.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC) Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.

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